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  Since the mid-1990s, general and containerized cargo passing through Africa’s ports has tripled in volume. Further growth will require additional investments, however, as port efficiency and performance remain well below international standards. Even though ports have been largely deregulated, many African countries maintain high port tariffs that discourage traffic and increase costs. Other operational and regulatory bottlenecks also slow traffic through Africa’s ports. Many are not large enough to attract direct calls from international shipping lines, underscoring the importance of developing regional transshipment hubs. Policy solutions include adopting a landlord port system that embodies international best practices.



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