There is very little reliable data on the extent to which governments devote budgetary resources to sanitation, but the limited evidence suggests that public finance is relatively small. Given the fact that Africa’s sanitation facilities are almost overwhelmingly on-site, households appear to be the main protagonists in financing sanitation infrastructure.
On average, about 0.5 percent of GDP is currently being invested in new sanitation facilities by all parties. Some countries, particularly Madagascar and Rwanda, appear to have made rapid progress, investing as much as 1 percent of GDP. Half of the countries of the region appear to invest less than 0.7 percent of GDP (the level recommended to meet the MDG for sanitation), with Namibia, Lesotho, Kenya, and Zambia spending less than 0.2 percent of GDP.